Early form of Western reflexology introduced in the United States in 1913 by William H. Fitzgerald, M.D., a specialist in diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Fitzgerald, author of Zone Therapy, or Relieving Pain at Home (1917), divided human anatomy into ten zones and professed that “bioelectrical” energy flowed through these zones to “reflex points” in the hands and feet. His method, which was also called “zonotherapy,” included the fastening of wire springs around toes. Fitzgerald’s associate, Edwin F. Bowers, M.D., coined the name “zone therapy.” Today, zone therapy may include the attachment of clothespins to fingertips and the use of pencils and aluminum combs. Also called reflex zone therapy, reflex zone massage.