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Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

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Also listed as: Curcuma longa
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • 1-(3-Cyclopentylpropyl)-2,4-dimethylbenzene, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, 1,8-cineole, 2-(2'-methyl-1'-propenyl)-4,6-dimethyl-7-hydroxyquinoline, 2,5-dihydroxybisabola-3,10-diene, 4''-(4'''-hydroxyphenyl)-2''-oxo-3''-butenyl-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl-3'-methoxy)-propenoate, 4''-(4'''-hydroxyphenyl-3'''-methoxy)-2''-oxo-3''-butenyl-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-propenoate, 4,5-dihydroxybisabola-2,10-diene, (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-formylphenyl)-2-hepten-4-one, (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-hepten-4-one, (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-3-methyl)-2-hepten-4-one, alantone, alpha-curcumene, alpha-turmerone, alpha-zingiberene, Amomum curcuma, anlatone (constituent), ar-curcumene, ar-tumerone, ar-turmerone, atlantone, BCM-95® (BiocurcumaxT) , beta-bisabolene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-curcumene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta-turmerin, beta-turmerone, bisacurone, bisacurone A, bisacurone B, bisacurone C, bisdemethoxycurcumin, calebin, C.I. 75300, C.I. Natural Yellow 3, CUR, Curcuma, Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma aromatica Salisbury, Curcuma domestica, Curcuma domestica Valeton, curcuma long oil, Curcuma longa, Curcuma longa Linn., Curcuma longa oils, Curcuma longa rhizoma, curcuma oil, curcumin, curcuminoids, curlone, dehydrozingerone, demethoxycurcumin, diaryl heptanoids, diferuloylmethane, E 100, e zhu, Gelbwurzel (German), germacrene, gurkemeje (Danish), haidr, halad (Marathi), haldar (Gujarati), haldi (Dogri, Hindi, Nepali, Punjabi, Urdu), halud (Bengali), haridra (Sanskrit), HSDB 4334, Indian saffron, Indian yellow root, jiang huang (Mandarin Chinese), jianghuang, kacha haldi, kumkum, kunir (Indonesian), kunyit (Indonesian), Kurkumawurzelstock (German), kurkumin, kyoo (Japanese), merita earth, NMXCC95T, Number Ten (NT), oil of turmeric, olena, radix Zedoaria longa, resveratrol, rhizome de curcuma (French), safran des Indes (French), sesquiterpenoids, shati, souchet, tumeric, tumerone, turmeric oil, turmeric root, turmeric yellow, turmerone, turmeronol A, ukon (Japanese), ukonan A, ukonan B, ukonan C, ukonan D, yellow ginger, yellow root, yellowroot, yo-kin, yujin, zedoary, zerumbone, zingerone, Zingiberaceae (family), zingiberene, zingiberone, Zitterwurzel (German), zlut prirodni 3.
  • Combination product examples: Chinese herbal extract Number Ten is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage, and turmeric. Smoke Shield is a proprietary formulation containing extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa), extracts of green tea, and other herbs. Protandim is an antioxidant supplement that consists of ashwagandha, bacopa extract, green tea extract, silymarin, and curcumin. Tiao ZhiAn mixture contains the mixed volatile oils of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, and Curcuma longa L. Ilogen-Excel is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata, and Mimosa pudica). Purnark is a mixture of extracts of turmeric, betel leaf, and catechu. JCICM-6 contains turmeric, as well as Sinomenium acutum, Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and Paeonia suffruticosa Andr .

Background
  • Turmeric is a spice, commonly used in Asian food, derived from the root of the turmeric (Curcuma longa) plant. Curcumin is the yellow-colored primary active part that is derived from turmeric and is commonly used to color foods and cosmetics.
  • The root of turmeric has long been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomach and intestine upset, arthritic pain, and "low energy." Although not well studied in humans, turmeric and curcumin have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, nerve-protective, insecticidal, and anticancer properties. Early human evidence suggests possible efficacy for dyspepsia (heartburn), Helicobacter pylori infection, pain relief, leukoplakia (patches in the mouth), osteoarthritis, and high cholesterol.
  • Treatment with curcumin is difficult due to its poor solubility in water; however, other forms have been made to increase its solubility, but high quality evidence in humans is lacking.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Curcumin has been reviewed for its use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; however, strong studies are lacking. Early research suggests that curcumin increases blood levels of vitamin E but has a lack of effect on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Early research suggests that turmeric may have antioxidant effects. However, more research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Early research suggests that turmeric may prevent the formation of blood clots. However, more research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Several early studies have reported the anticancer (colon, skin, breast) properties of curcumin. Many mechanisms have been considered, including antioxidant activity, prevention of new blood vessel growth, and direct effects on cancer cells. Currently it remains unclear if turmeric or curcumin has a role in preventing or treating human cancers, and further studies are needed in this area.

C


Curcuma longa has been studied for use in Crohn's disease. In a review, people have reported an improvement in symptoms of Crohn's disease; however, strong evidence is lacking to make a firm conclusion. Further research is needed.

C


Early studies have indicated that curcumin may have an effect against bacteria in the mouth. Clinical research shows that turmeric may be as effective as chlorhexidine mouthwash; however, further studies are needed in this area.

C


In animal research, curcumin or turmeric had a positive effect on glucose and HbA1c levels, elevated plasma insulin, and improved cholesterol and antioxidant status. In clinical research, curcumin has been shown to decrease the progression of prediabetics and improve microangiopathy (blood vessel disease). Further study is needed in this area.

C


According to early research using a combination herbal formula, turmeric may help lessen symptoms of eczema. However, the effect of turmeric alone has yet to be examined. Additional research is required before a conclusion can be made.

C


According to early research using a combination herbal formula, turmeric may be beneficial in the treatment of certain eye problems. Despite these findings, the data on the efficacy of turmeric alone remain limited. Further research is needed in this area.

C


It has been said that there are fewer people with gallstones in India, which is sometimes credited to turmeric in the diet. Early studies have reported that curcumin, a chemical in turmeric, may decrease the occurrence of gallstones. However, reliable human studies are lacking in this area, and further research is needed.

C


According to early research, turmeric was lacked any benefit for those people infected with H. pylori. Well-designed research is required before conclusions can be drawn.

C


Turmeric has been traditionally used to treat stomach problems (such as indigestion from a fatty meal). There is preliminary evidence that turmeric may offer some relief from these stomach problems. However, at high doses or with prolonged use, turmeric may actually irritate or upset the stomach. Reliable human research is necessary before a conclusion can be made.

C


In animals, curcumin has been shown to have protective effects in heart attacks and cardiopulmonary bypass. One clinical study indicates a decrease in heart attack while in the hospital after coronary artery bypass. Further research is needed.

C


The effects of curcumin have been studied for heart disease and heart protection. However, clinical studies are limited, and further research is needed.

C


Early studies suggest that turmeric may lower levels of low-density lipoprotein ("bad") cholesterol and total cholesterol in the blood. However, clinical studies in humans have reported a lack of effect on both "bad" and "good" cholesterol. But, a reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels was also reported. Further well-designed studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Turmeric and curcumin have both been identified in limited human research as having anti-inflammatory properties. In order to establish a strong conclusion, additional research is needed.

C


Early research has suggested that turmeric may lessen symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More studies are needed to verify these findings.

C


Due to turmeric's anti-inflammatory effects, curcumin has been studied in people with itching due to sulfur mustard. One clinical study indicated that curcumin may be effective for itching, but further research is needed.

C


Early research has suggested that curcumin may reduce symptoms of oral leukoplakia (white patches in the mouth). Further research is necessary before a strong conclusion can be made.

C


In India, turmeric has been used to tone the liver. Early research suggests that turmeric may have a protective effect on the liver. In rats, turmeric has been shown to possibly be mildly toxic to the liver in high doses. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Due to turmeric's anti-inflammatory properties, a study has been done in people with oral lichen planus in which a curcumin complex has been shown to improve symptoms in of oral lichen planus. Further research is needed in this area.

C


Turmeric and curcumin have both been identified as having anti-inflammatory properties. In clinical research, turmeric has been shown to possibly be helpful for relapsing lupus nephritis. However, further study is needed.

C


Curcumin has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce beta-amyloid and plaque burden in early studies. However, there is currently a lack of enough evidence to suggest the use of curcumin for mental performance. Further studies are needed.

C


Turmeric has been used historically to treat rheumatic conditions. Although not well studied in humans, turmeric and curcumin may relieve symptoms associated with osteoarthritis due to their anti-inflammatory properties. More research in humans is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Early research suggests that curcumin may reduce symptoms associated with rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed before a conclusion can be made.

C


Historically, turmeric has been used on the skin to treat chronic skin ulcers and scabies. It has also been used in combination with the leaves of the herb Azadirachta indica (neem). More research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Turmeric has been used historically to treat stomach ulcers. However, at high doses or with prolonged use, turmeric may actually further irritate or upset the stomach. Currently, there is a lack of enough human evidence to make a firm conclusion.

C


Early evidence suggests that curcumin, alone or as part of a spicy diet, may aid in the reduction of pain associated with surgery. Further research is required.

C


Turmeric and curcumin have both been found to have anti-inflammatory properties. Animal studies have shown that turmeric is effective for treating and preventing ulcerative colitis inflammation. However, further research in humans is needed.

C


Early human research involving a combination product containing turmeric for weight loss has been conducted. At this time, high-quality studies using turmeric alone for weight loss are lacking. Additional research is required.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Abdominal bloating, abscess, acne, aging, alcohol abuse, allergy, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), anthelmintic (expel parasitic worms), antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antivenom, antiviral, appetite stimulant, arthritis (general), ascaridiasis (worms in the gut or liver), asthma, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), boils, bruises, burns, cataracts, chemoprotective, childbirth (umbilical stump care), chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, colic, constipation, contraception, cosmetic uses, cough, depression, diarrhea, diagnostic procedure (histological dye), dizziness, dry eye syndrome, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), epilepsy, expectorant (loosens mucus), fever, fistula, flavoring agent, food uses (coloring), gas, gonorrhea, hair growth, heart damage from doxorubicin (Adriamycin®, Doxil®), hematuria (blood in the urine), hemorrhage, hepatitis, herpes (cold sores), high blood pressure, human papillomavirus (HPV), immune function, increased sperm count/motility, increasing breast milk, infertility (bovine), insect bites, insect repellent, jaundice, kidney disease, kidney impairment, kidney stones, kidney transplant, leprosy, liver disease, lung fibrosis, malaria, menopause, menstrual pain, metabolic disorders (Neimann-Pick type C disease), multidrug resistance, multiple sclerosis, muscle ache, muscle strains/pain, nerve damage, nerve disorders, nutritional support, organ transplantation (immune suppression), pancreatitis, parasites, Parkinson's disease, prostate conditions, protection from tobacco smoke, rabies, radioprotection, respiratory disorders, rhinitis (stuffy nose), ringworm, scar healing, scleroderma, sepsis, skin disorders, snakebite, soft tissue injuries, stroke prevention, toxicity (5-aminosalicyclic acids, 5-ASA), urinary disorders, vitiligo (loss of pigment in the skin), Wilson's disease, wound healing.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old)

  • Traditional doses are in the range of 1.5-3 grams of turmeric root taken by mouth daily in divided doses. As a tea, 1-1.5 grams of dried root may be steeped in 150 milliliters of water for 15 minutes and taken by mouth twice daily. Average dietary intake of turmeric in the Indian population may range between 2-2.5 grams, corresponding to 60-200 milligrams of curcumin daily.
  • For antioxidant effects, 500 milligrams of turmeric has been taken by mouth twice daily for three months. 6 grams or 500 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth once daily in the morning for seven days.
  • For cancer, 3.6-12 grams of curcumin has been taken by mouth once or twice daily as a single or in divided doses for seven days and up to three months. 750 milligrams of turmeric has been taken by mouth twice daily. Turmeric alcohol extract or 0.5% curcumin ointment in Vaseline® has been applied to the skin three times daily for up to four weeks.
  • For Crohn's disease, 360 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth 2-3 times daily for two months.
  • For diabetes, 750 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth twice daily for nine months. 500 milligrams of Meriva® has been taken twice daily for four weeks. 50 milligrams of turmeric (containing 22.1 milligrams of curcumin) has been taken by mouth daily with each meal for two months.
  • For eczema, a turmeric product (Herbavate) has been applied to the skin twice daily for four weeks.
  • For eye problems, 375 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth three times daily for 6-22 months. An eye drop formulation containing curcumin has been applied into the eye, amount and duration unknown.
  • For heart attack (post CABG), 4 grams of curcumin has been taken by mouth daily as four divided doses starting three days prior surgery and continuing five days after surgery.
  • For heartburn, 250 milligrams of dried root powder (containing 0.02 milliliters of volatile oil and 0.024 grams of total curcuminoids) has been taken by mouth four times daily for seven days.
  • For heart disease prevention, 150 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth once daily by mouth for eight weeks.
  • For Helicobacter pylori infection, 700 milligrams turmeric has been taken by mouth three times daily for four weeks with a lack of benefit.
  • For high blood cholesterol, 20 milligrams of turmeric root extract has been taken by mouth as two 10 milligram tablets daily for 30 days. 500 milligrams or 6 grams of curcumin has been taken by mouth once daily in the morning for seven days.
  • For inflammatory bowel disease, 1 gram of curcumin has been taken by mouth twice daily for six months.
  • For irritable bowel syndrome, 1-2 tablets of a turmeric extract have been taken by mouth daily for eight weeks.
  • For itching, 1 gram of curcumin (C3 Complex®) has been taken by mouth once daily for four weeks.
  • For liver protection, 3 grams of fermented turmeric powder in two capsules has been taken by mouth three times daily after meals for 12 weeks.
  • For lichen planus, 6 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth daily in three divided doses for 12 days
  • For sores of the mouth, 0.6 milliliters of turmeric oil three times daily for one month and one milliliter in three divided doses for two months have been taken by mouth.
  • For osteoarthritis, two grams of extract has been taken by mouth daily for six weeks.
  • For peptic ulcer disease, 250 milligrams of powdered turmeric root four times daily, or 6 grams of turmeric daily in three divided doses, or 300 milligrams of turmeric five times daily, has been taken by mouth.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis, 1200 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth daily in three divided doses for two weeks.
  • For scabies, the affected area has been covered with a paste containing a 4:1 mixture of Azadirachta indica (neem) and turmeric for up to 15 days. Scabies should be treated under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
  • For surgical recovery, 400 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth three times daily for five days after surgery. 500 milligrams of curcumin has been taken by mouth every six hours (2 grams daily) for three weeks.
  • For ulcerative colitis, 360 milligrams of curcumin has been taken 2-3 times daily for two months.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • For scabies, the affected area has been covered with a paste containing a 4:1 mixture of Azadirachta indica (neem) and turmeric for up to 15 days. Scabies should be treated under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to turmeric, its parts (including curcumin), certain yellow food colorings, or other members of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Turmeric is generally considered safe when used in amounts commonly found in foods.
  • Turmeric may cause an altered heartbeat, an increase in blood volume, an increase in menstruation period, an increase in urine flow, changes in skin color, changes in cholesterol (decrease "bad" cholesterol), changes in immune function, changes in thyroid function, common cold, constipation, decrease in fertility (decrease sperm), decrease in iron absorption, delusion, diarrhea, gallbladder contraction, gas, giddiness, gout pain, hair loss (high doses), heartburn, hormone changes, inflammation of stomach and intestine lining, irritated or itchy skin, kidney stones, liver cell toxicity, liver function changes, mild fever, oxidative stress, nausea, rash, skin hardness, skin papules, skin redness, stomach fullness and pain, stomach ulcers, throat infection, transient complete atrioventricular block (a heart measurement), uterine contractions, vertigo, weight loss, worsening of arthritis symptoms, and yellow or hard stools.
  • Turmeric may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Turmeric may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or low blood sugar and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Turmeric may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that lower blood pressure.
  • Turmeric may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Use cautiously in people with liver dysfunction, as turmeric may alter liver function.
  • Use cautiously in people with immune system deficiencies, as turmeric may weaken the immune system.
  • Use cautiously in smokers or ex-smokers, in people at risk for iron deficiency or kidney stones, or in people with acquired metal storage diseases (including hepatitis C), vitiligo (loss of pigment in the skin), sensitivity to changes in hormone levels, or gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Use cautiously with cholesterol-lowering drugs or medications absorbed by p-glycoprotein.
  • Use cautiously in combination with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors or docetaxel.
  • Use cautiously in people looking to conceive, due to the potential for antifertility effects.
  • Use cautiously in pregnancy, as turmeric may cause uterine stimulation and stimulate menstrual flow.
  • Avoid curcumin in doses over 8,000 milligrams daily.
  • Avoid in people with bile duct obstruction or gallstones.
  • Avoid in people with stomach ulcers or with increased stomach acid disorders.
  • Avoid in people allergic to turmeric, any of its parts (including curcumin), certain yellow food colorings, or other members of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Use cautiously in pregnancy, as turmeric may cause uterine stimulation and stimulate menstrual flow. Turmeric is not recommended in breastfeeding women, due to a lack of safety data.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Turmeric may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Turmeric may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. People taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Turmeric may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that lower blood pressure.
  • Turmeric may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a healthcare professional or pharmacist about possible interactions.
  • Turmeric may also interact with acetaminophen, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, agents for arthritis, agents for fertility, agents for the heart, agents for the stomach and intestines, agents that are toxic to the liver, agents that affect the immune system, agents that widen blood vessels, amiloride, analgesics, antibiotics, anticancer drugs, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antifungals, anti-inflammatory drugs, antimalarial drugs, antiobesity agents, antiparasitics, antivirals, bone loss agents, calcium channel blockers, celecoxib, cholesterol-lowering drugs, ciprofloxacin, cisplatin, cyclodextrin, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, dimethylsulphoxide, docetaxel, erythromycin, erythropoietin, fluoride, histone deacetylase inhibitors, hormonal agents, metronidazole, morphine, muscle relaxants, nerve agents, nifedipine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), norfloxacin, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, paracetamol, p-glycoprotein-regulated agents, polyethylene glycosylated curcumin, praziquantel, prulifloxacin, rapamycin, retinol, ritonavir, sulfasalazine, sulfinosine, sulindac sulfone, tacrolimus, talinolol, tamoxifen, taxol, thalidomide, trichostatin A, vinorelbine, and warfarin.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Turmeric may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, some cases with garlic, and fewer cases with saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Turmeric may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Turmeric cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.
  • Turmeric may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the cytochrome P450 system.
  • Turmeric may also interact with, antibacterials, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and antiobesity herbs and supplements, antioxidants, antiparasitic and antiviral herbs and supplements, betel leaf extract, bone herbs and supplements, capsaicin, catechin, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, cobalt, copper, danshensu, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), fenugreek, fish oil, fluoride, garlic, genistein, green tea, iron, herbs and supplements for arthritis, for fertility, and for gallstones, for the heart, and for the stomach and intestines, herbs and supplements that affect the nerves, herbs and supplements that are toxic to the liver, herbs and supplements that affect the immune system, herbs and supplements that widen blood vessels, hormonal herbs and supplements, iron, isoflavones, isothiocyanates, lignin, Monascus pilosus, muscle relaxants, omega-3 fatty acids, p-glycoprotein-regulated herbs and supplements, piperine, piplartine, Protandim®, quercetin, resveratrol, retinol, saffron, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin E.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
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  9. Mohammadi A, Sahebkar A, Iranshahi M, et al. Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytother Res 2013;27(3):374-379.
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  14. Volak LP, Hanley MJ, Masse G, et al. Effect of a herbal extract containing curcumin and piperine on midazolam, flurbiprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013;75(2):450-462.
  15. Zhang LN, Sun YJ, Pan S, et al. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, a potent neuroprotective modulator against Alzheimer disease. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2013;27(1):96-103.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.


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