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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

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Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Artocarpus, Artocarpus asperulus, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Artocarpus incisa, Artocarpus integer, Artocarpus integrifolia, Artocarpusmasticata, Artocarpus melinoxylus, Artocarpus parva, Artocarpus petelotii, breadfruit, jacalin, jack fruit, jackfruit seed, Moraceae (family).

Background
  • Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), which refers to both a species of tree and its fruit, is native to southwestern India and Sri Lanka. Jackfruit was reportedly cultivated for food as early as the 6th Century BC in India. At approximately 25 centimeters in diameter, jackfruit is reportedly the largest tree-borne fruit in the world. The fruit juices are extremely sticky, so people often oil their hands before preparing the fruit.
  • The fruit can be ingested while the wood is used for furniture and musical instruments. Recent laboratory studies show that lectins found in jackfruit and its seeds may have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunostimulative properties. However, clinical study is lacking. The currently available research examines the role of jackfruit leaves in increasing glucose tolerance. More studies in humans are needed to define jackfruit's potential role in diabetes.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance. However, there is little available research in this area. Additional study is needed.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Antibacterial, antifungal, contraception, antiviral, food uses, immunostimulation.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of jackfruit in adults. A hot-water extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves equivalent to 20 grams per kilogram of starting material has been taken by mouth for high blood sugar/glucose intolerance.

Children (younger than 18 years):

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of jackfruit in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). In some patients, jackfruit is a Bet v 1 (birch pollen allergen)-related food allergy.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Jackfruit has few reported side effects. Use cautiously in patients with birch pollen allergies.
  • Although not well studied in humans, jackfruit may increase coagulation. Caution is advised in patients with blood disorders. Jackfruit may also alter glucose tolerance, and patients with diabetes should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, to check for interactions.
  • Jackfruit seeds may have immunostimulative effects. Use cautiously in patients using immunosuppression therapy or with transplanted tissues.
  • Use cautiously in patients attempting to become pregnant as jackfruit seeds may markedly inhibit libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor, and sexual performance (induce mild erectile dysfunction) in males. However, jackfruit seeds do not appear to alter ejaculating competence or fertility.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Jackfruit is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Although not well studied in humans, jackfruit seeds may transiently inhibit libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor, and sexual performance (induce mild erectile dysfunction). However, jackfruit seeds do not appear to alter ejaculating competence or fertility.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Various jackfruit plant parts, including the bark, wood, leaves, fruit, and seeds, may exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Caution is advised in patients taking antibiotics due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit seeds may increase the risk of bleeding when taking with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin ®, Advil ®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetes patients. Caution is advised when using medications that may also alter blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Although not well studied in humans, jackfruit may inhibit the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is conflicting data regarding jackfruit's antifungal activity. Caution is advised in patients taking other antifungal agents due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit may exhibit inhibitory activity with a cytopathic effect towards herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus. Caution is advised in patients taking other antiviral agents due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit seeds may markedly inhibit libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor, and sexual performance (induce mild erectile dysfunction) in males. However, jackfruit seeds do not appear to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. Caution is advised in patients taking jackfruit with agents for sexual dysfunction or agents with sexual side effects.
  • Jackfruit and jackfruit seeds may have immunostimulative effects. Use cautiously when taking immunomodulators or immunostimulants.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Various jackfruit plant parts, including the bark, wood, leaves, fruit, and seeds, may exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Caution is advised when taking other herbs or supplements with antibacterial activity due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit seeds may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
  • Although not well studied in humans, jackfruit may inhibit the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, results are conflicting. Nonetheless, caution is advised in patients taking other herbs or supplements with antifungal activity due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit may exhibit inhibitory activity with a cytopathic effect towards herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus. Caution is advised in patients taking other herbs or supplements with antiviral activity due to possible additive effects.
  • Jackfruit seeds may markedly inhibit libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigor, and sexual performance (induce mild erectile dysfunction) in males. However, jackfruit seeds do not appear to alter ejaculating competence or fertility. Caution is advised in patients taking jackfruit with herbs or supplements for sexual dysfunction, or herbs or supplements with sexual side effects.
  • Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetes patients. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplement that may alter blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Jackfruit and jackfruit seeds may have immunostimulative effects. Use cautiously when taking immunomodulators or immunostimulants.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Barua AG, Boruah BR. Minerals and functional groups present in the jackfruit seed: a spectroscopic investigation. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004;55(6):479-483.
  2. Blasco E, Ngoc LD, Aucouturier P, et al. Mitogenic activity of new lectins from seeds of wild Artocarpus species from Vietnam. C.R.Acad.Sci III 1996;319(5):405-409.
  3. Bolhaar ST, Ree R, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, et al. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy. Allergy 2004;59(11):1187-1192.
  4. Fernando MR, Wickramasinghe N, Thabrew MI, et al. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31(3):277-282.
  5. Hashim OH, Kobayashi K, Taniguchi N. Interaction of Artocarpus lectins with human IgA does not involve asparagine-linked oligosaccharide of the immunoglobulin. Biochem Int 1992;27(3):423-429.
  6. Kabir S, Daar AS. The composition and properties of jacalin, a lectin of diverse applications obtained from the jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Immunol Invest 1994;23(3):167-188.
  7. Kabir S, Aebersold R, Daar AS. Identification of a novel 4 kDa immunoglobulin-A-binding peptide obtained by the limited proteolysis of jacalin. Biochim.Biophys Acta 2-13-1993;1161(2-3):194-200.
  8. Khan MR, Omoloso AD, Kihara M. Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Fitoterapia 2003;74(5):501-505.
  9. Pineau N, Aucouturier P, Brugier JC, et al. Jacalin: a lectin mitogenic for human CD4 T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 1990;80(3):420-425.
  10. Ratnasooriya WD, Jayakody JR. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2002;40(3):304-308.
  11. Sujathan K, Kannan S, Remani P, et al. Differential expression of jackfruit-lectin-specific glycoconjugates in metastatic adenocarcinoma and reactive mesothelial cells-a diagnostic aid in effusion cytology. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1996;122(7):433-436.
  12. Tachibana K, Nakamura S, Wang H, et al. Elucidation of binding specificity of Jacalin toward O-glycosylated peptides: quantitative analysis by frontal affinity chromatography. Glycobiology 2006;16(1):46-53.
  13. Trindade MB, Lopes JL, Soares-Costa A, et al. Structural characterization of novel chitin-binding lectins from the genus Artocarpus and their antifungal activity. Biochim.Biophys Acta 2006;1764(1):146-152.
  14. Wetprasit N, Threesangsri W, Klamklai N, et al. Jackfruit lectin: properties of mitogenicity and the inhibition of herpesvirus infection. Jpn.J Infect.Dis 2000;53(4):156-161.
  15. Wuthrich B, Borga A, Yman L. Oral allergy syndrome to a jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia). Allergy 1997;52(4):428-431.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.


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