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Capers (Capparis spinosa L.)

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Also listed as: Capparis spinosa L.
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Alcaparra (Portuguese), alcaparro (Spanish), caparra (Spanish), caper, caperberry, caperbush, cappariloside, cappero (Italian), capperone (Italian), capres (French), caprier (French), fabagelle (French), glucocapperin, hydroxycinnamic acids, kabarra (Punjabi), kabra (Bengali), kaempferol glycoside, kapernstrauch (German), kapersy (Russian), kappar (Estonian), kapper (German), kappertjes (Dutch), kapricserje (Hungarian), kapris (Swedish and Finnish), kiari (Hindi), kobra (Hindi), lussef (Egyptian), mustard oil (methyl isothiocyanate), quercetin glycoside, rutin, tapana (French), torkav (Estonian).

Background
  • Capers (Capparis spinosa) traditionally has been used for gas, liver function, heart disease, kidney disorders, parasitic worm infections, anemia, arthritis, gout, and as a tonic. Capers has also been used for low blood sugar. In early study, capers has shown antioxidant, liver protective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and sun protective properties.
  • The combination therapy Liv-52® (Himalaya Herbals, India), which contains ferric oxide, capers, and several other herbal ingredients, may be an effective treatment for cirrhosis. The efficacy of capers alone for cirrhosis or other conditions remains unproven.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


There is limited evidence of the effect of capers alone on cirrhosis. Additional studies are needed.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Anemia, antioxidant, anti-spasm, antiviral, diabetes, diuretic, dropsy, gas, gout, heart disease, herpes simplex virus, high blood pressure, immune system regulation, inflammatory conditions, kidney disease (kidney disinfectant), painful urination, parasitic worm infections, rheumatism, sun protection, tonic.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • Three tablets per day of Liv-52® (a combination product from Himalaya Herbals, India) have been used for six months for cirrhosis.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for capers, and use in children is not recommended.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to capers. Cross-sensitivity with mustard oil may be possible.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • There is limited evidence of adverse effects with use of capers. Cross-sensitivity with mustard oil may be possible. Rash has been reported when capers was applied to the skin in a wet compress.
  • Capers may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Capers may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.
  • Use with caution in patients taking diuretics. Use with caution in patients who are prone to iron overload as the combination product Liv-52® (Himalaya Herbals, India) contains iron.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Capers are not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Capers may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or injection should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional. Medication adjustment may be necessary.
  • Capers may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking medications that lower blood pressure.
  • Capers may have additive effects when used with sun protective, immune system modulating, diuretic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, and iron-containing drugs. Capers may counter the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and COX 2 inhibitors.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Capers may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Capers may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking herbs or supplements that may also lower blood pressure.
  • Capers may have additive effects when used with antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, diuretic, immune system modulating, sun protective, and iron-containing herbs or supplements.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Angelini G, Vena GA, Filotico R, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from Capparis spinosa L. applied as wet compresses. Contact Dermatitis 1991;24(5):382-383.
  2. Arena A, Bisignano G, Pavone B, et al. Antiviral and immunomodulatory effect of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa L. buds. Phytother Res 2008;22(3):313-317.
  3. Bonina F, Puglia C, Ventura D, et al. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effects of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa L buds. J Cosmet Sci 2002;53(6):321-335.
  4. Calis I, Kuruuzum A, Ruedi P. 1H-Indole-3 acetonitrile glycosides from Capparis spinosa fruits. Phytochemistry 1997;50(7):1205-1208.
  5. Calis I, Kuruuzum-Uz A, Lorenzetto PA, et al. (6S)-Hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides from Capparis spinosa fruits. Phytochemistry 2002;59(4):451-457.
  6. Huseini HF, Alavian SM, Heshmat R, et al. The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(9):619-624.
  7. Jiang HE, Li X, Ferguson DK, et al. The discovery of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) in the Yanghai Tombs (2800 years b.p.), NW China, and its medicinal implications. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(3):409-420.
  8. Mahasneh AM. Screening of some indigenous Qatari medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. Phytother Res 2002;16(8):751-753.
  9. Matthaus B, Ozcan M. Glucosinolate composition of young shoots and flower buds of capers (Capparis species) growing wild in Turkey. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2002;50(25):7323-7325.
  10. Lopez-Lopez A, Jimenez-Araujo A, Garcia-Garcia P, et al. Multivariate analysis for the evaluation of fiber, sugars, and organic acids in commercial presentations of table olives. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(26):10803-10811.
  11. Panico AM, Cardile V, Garufi F, et al. Protective effect of Capparis spinosa on chondrocytes. Life Sci. 2005;77(20):2479-2488.
  12. Romeo V, Ziino M, Giuffrida D, et al. Flavour profile of capers (Capparis spinosa L.) from the Eolian Archipelago by HS-SPME/GC-MS. Food Chemistry 2007;3:1272-1278.
  13. Sharaf M, el Ansari MA, Saleh NA. Quercetin triglycoside from Capparis spinosa. Fitoterapia 2000;71(1):46-49.
  14. Tesoriere L, Butera D, Gentile C, et al. Bioactive components of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from Sicily and antioxidant effects in a red meat simulated gastric digestion. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(21):8465-8471.
  15. Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Friedman J, et al. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;19(2):145-151.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.


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